# Vector 3D structure with Operation overloads and basic functions - C++

Posted on by Kenny Cason
tags = [ 3d, c++, mathematics, vector ]

This is my Vector3D structure with a set of appropriate operation overloads(-,+,/,*,–,++,etc) that I use for various math operations as well. Feel free to add upon it or do whatever you like with it. (Update the – and ++ operators are not correctly overloaded :) )

``````#ifndef __VECTOR_3D_H__
#define __VECTOR_3D_H__

#include "math.h"
#include <string>
#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
/*
3D Vector and rotation functions.
Rotations about X, Y, Z, and any arbitrary vector
*/

#define PI 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288

struct Vector3D {

long double x;
long double y;
long double z;

Vector3D() {
x = 0; y = 0; z = 0;
}

Vector3D(long double _x, long double _y, long double _z) {
x = _x; y = _y; z = _z;
}

/**
* assignment operator
*/
bool operator=(Vector3D v) {
x = v.x; y = v.y; z = v.z;
}

/**
* equality operator
*/
bool operator==(Vector3D v) {
return (x == v.x && y == v.y && z == v.z);
}

/**
* equality operator
*/
bool operator!=(Vector3D v) {
return (x != v.x || y != v.y || z != v.z);
}

/**
*/
bool operator+=(Vector3D v) {
x += v.x; y += v.y; z += v.z;
}

Vector3D operator+(Vector3D v) {
Vector3D vect;
vect.x = x + v.x; vect.y = y + v.y; vect.z = z + v.z;
return vect;
}

Vector3D operator++(int) {
x++; y++; z++;
}

Vector3D operator++() {
++x; ++y; ++z;
}

/**
* subtraction operators
*/
bool operator-=(Vector3D v) {
x -= v.x; y -= v.y; z -= v.z;
}

Vector3D operator-(Vector3D v) {
Vector3D vect;
vect.x = x - v.x; vect.y = y - v.y; vect.z = z - v.z;
return vect;
}

Vector3D operator--(int) {
x--; y--; z--;
}

Vector3D operator--() {
--x; --y; --z;
}

/**
* division operators
*/
bool operator/=(long double scalar) {
x /= scalar; y /= scalar; z /= scalar;
}

Vector3D operator/(long double scalar){
Vector3D vect;
vect.x = x / scalar; vect.y = y / scalar; vect.z = z / scalar;
return vect;
}

bool operator/=(Vector3D v) {
x /= v.x; y /= v.y; z /= v.z;
}

Vector3D operator/(Vector3D v){
Vector3D vect;
vect.x = x / v.x; vect.y = y / v.y; vect.z = z / v.z;
return vect;
}

/**
* multiplication operators
*/
bool operator*=(long double scalar) {
x *= scalar; y *= scalar; z *= scalar;
}

Vector3D operator*(long double scalar){
Vector3D vect;
vect.x = x * scalar; vect.y = y * scalar; vect.z = z * scalar;
return vect;
}

bool operator*=(Vector3D v) {
x *= v.x; y *= v.y; z *= v.z;
}

Vector3D operator*(Vector3D v){
Vector3D vect;
vect.x = x * v.x; vect.y = y * v.y; vect.z = z * v.z;
return vect;
}

/**
* exponent operators
*/
bool operator^=(float power) {
x = pow(x, power); y = pow(y, power); z = pow(z, power);
}

Vector3D operator^(float power){
Vector3D vect;
vect.x = pow(x, power); vect.y = pow(y, power); vect.z = pow(z, power);
return vect;
}

/**
* Return Unit Vector
*/
Vector3D unit() {
Vector3D vect;
double d = sqrt(x * x + y * y +  z * z);
vect = *(this) / d;
return vect;
}

/**
* toString()
*/
std::string toString() {
std::stringstream oss;
oss << "(" << x << "," << y << "," << z << ")";
return oss.str();
}

};
#endif``````

Example usage of operators: main.cpp (Rotation functions are demonstrated in previous posts)

``````#include <iostream>
#include "Vector3D.h"

using namespace std;

int main() {

Vector3D v(2,2,2);
cout << "v1, " << v.toString() << endl;

Vector3D v2(2,3,4);
cout << "v2, " << v2.toString() << endl;

v += v2;

cout << "v1 += v2, " << v.toString() << endl;

v ^= 2;

cout << "v1^=2, " << v.toString() << endl;

v ^= 0.5;

cout << "v1^=(1/2), " << v.toString() << endl;

v--;
--v;
v++;
++v;

cout << "v1++,++v1,v--,--v," << v.toString() << endl;

v -= v2;

cout << "v1 -= v2," << v.toString() << endl;

cout << "v1 == v2, " << (v == v2) << endl;
cout << "v1 != v2, " << (v != v2) << endl;

cout << "unit vect, " << v2.unit().toString() << endl;

return 0;
}``````